How much do you know about carnosine
Carnosine (English: L-Carnosine), scientific name β-alanyl-L-histidine, is a dipeptide molecule composed of two amino acids β-alanine and L-histidine. It is found in vertebrate brains. And skeletal muscle tissues in high concentrations. Studies in the United Kingdom, South Korea, Russia and other countries have shown that carnosine can scavenge reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) and α-β unsaturated fatty aldehydes formed during oxidative stress due to the over-acidification of fatty acids in cell membranes, and has antioxidant properties. Efficacy and so on. At the same time, carnosine also has high medicinal value. Supplementing carnosine can alleviate some neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancer and so on.
Carnosine is mainly found in metabolically active organs, such as skeletal muscle (content is 1-20 mmol/Kg) and the brain. The carnosine in muscle has physiological functions such as physiological pH buffering, scavenging free radicals, enhancing antioxidant capacity and affecting calcium ion regulation. In 1900, Russian scholar Gulewitsch isolated carnosine for the first time from beef extract, which was the first representative bioactive peptide isolated from natural raw materials.
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Since Gulewitsch first isolated carnosine, scholars from various countries have extracted and isolated different types of carnosine from different muscle tissues, such as anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, Anserine) for more than 100 years. , Cetyl carnosine (β-alanyl-3-methyl-L-histidine, Balenine, also known as snake carnosine, Ophidine,), decarboxyl carnosine and other dipeptides, have their own advantages. A large number of studies have shown that carnosine has anti-aging, anti-glycation, anti-oxidation and chelation effects, and is widely used by many cosmetic manufacturers due to its high activity, strong anti-oxidation, small molecule, and high safety. As a bigwig in the antioxidant world, carnosine has its own unique mechanism of action!
Anti-aging mechanism of carnosine
Scavenging free radicals & antioxidant: Studies have shown that carnosine can directly quench O2-·, HO· or directly interact with lipid peroxidation products and damaged proteins. Its antioxidant capacity is related to its simple and special molecular conformation. The reason The H atom connected to the N atom on the imidazole ring of carnosine and the methylene group on His have strong variability and can bind to carbonyl proteins, ROS and lipid peroxides.
Inhibition of telomere shortening: Telomeres are repeated DNA sequence fragments at the end of chromosomes, whose length is proportional to the number of cell divisions. At birth, the length of telomeres is the longest, and the length of telomeres will gradually decrease with age. Under normal circumstances, the number of divisions of human body cells is limited, so we believe that the body’s aging is related to the shortening of telomeres, and telomerase can increase telomeres. Studies have shown that carnosine has the effect of activating telomerase and inhibiting telomere shortening, which in turn can promote the body to delay aging and maintain youthfulness. The study also showed that if a variety of antioxidant products such as carnosine, green tea extract, VD and glycine are combined in a pre-determined combination, synergy and expansion can occur, and the anti-aging effect can be enhanced.
Regulate cell autophagy and apoptosis: In the body, autophagy can effectively control the quality of the proteins and organelles in the organism’s own cells to maintain the stability of the intracellular environment. Studies have shown that controlling autophagy in the body can alleviate the occurrence of aging. It can increase the occurrence of lysosomes, and accelerate the elimination of metabolites in cells by activating autophagy, and delay aging.
Anti-glycation of the body: The glycation of the body can not only cause protein deterioration, but also destroy the tissue function of the organism. Carnosine can quickly react with aldehydes produced by saccharification such as the oxidation of amino acids and oils, glucose oxidation, cell metabolism, etc., to prevent the damage of aldehydes to the body.
At present, there are mainly two methods for the production of carnosine at home and abroad: extraction from animal muscle and chemical synthesis. In the muscle extraction method, when carnosine is extracted from animal muscles, the extract contains a mixture of superoxide anions, hydroxides and hydroxyl radicals, iron and heme, etc., which can affect its antioxidant effect. , Will cause the actual effect of the extraction product to be greatly reduced, so it is not very ideal. The chemical synthesis method, that is, using L-histidine and ethyl cyanoacetate as raw materials, through the two-step reaction of aminolysis and hydrogenation to synthesize L-carnosine, is not only simple in process, but also easy to operate, but it is easy to produce during the synthesis process. Peptides.
Application of carnosine
At present, carnosine has been widely used in many health fields. In the food industry, it is a new type of food additive. For example, adding carnosine to fresh meat can improve the flavor of meat. In meat processing, carnosine can inhibit fat oxidation and protect meat color. Adding 0.9g/kg carnosine to the diet can improve the flesh color and the oxidative stability of skeletal muscle, and has a synergistic effect with vitamin E.
Many anti-aging functional products abroad use carnosine as an effective ingredient, and this type of product is favored by domestic consumers. In the field of medicine, carnosine is used as a medicine to treat diseases such as cataracts and Alzheimer’s due to its ability to delay the loss of vision caused by aging. It can also be used as a sensor for the olfactory nerve, which can promote wound healing, and is especially used as an oral medicine for surgical treatment.
In the application of cosmetics, carnosine can not only prevent skin aging and whitening, but also prevent the free radicals generated by smoking, and this free radical can damage the skin more than sunlight. Free radicals are very active in the human body. Strong atoms or groups of atoms can oxidize other substances in the human body.
The effect of carnosine on the skin
Carnosine is called a liquid ultrasonic knife and is widely used in anti-aging skin care ingredients, and its role is not only that!
The main function of carnosine is anti-aging, anti-oxidation and free radicals!
Another full-time function of carnosine is to prevent free radical damage, especially to protect the lipid components of cell membranes, so carnosine is a stabilizer and protector of cell membranes. If the cell membrane is damaged, it is like a balloon being punched, and it will be of no use. Carnosine not only protects the cell membrane, but also protects the mitochondrial membrane inside the cell.
Carnosine can also act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
It can be used as an antioxidant to neutralize and relieve free radicals that attack our DNA cells. It can help chelate metal ions (removing toxins from the body), it can also enhance the function of the immune system, and has been proven to reduce and prevent betaamyloid (betaamyloid, a substance found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease) Damage to cells. More interesting is that some people claim that it can extend the Hayflick Limit (the HayflickLimit, the cell can only replicate itself about 52 times before “death”. Carnosine can extend the replication capacity of the cell more than 60 times (it is a veritable anti-aging ingredient).
The effect of carnosine in skin care products
- Balance the distribution of nutrients.
- Maintain normal skin metabolism.
- Fill the skin and affect the texture and appearance of the skin.
- Speed up the excretion of skin metabolites.
- Maintain a uniform skin tone.
- Purify the skin and maintain the normal internal circulation of the skin.
- Improve the skin’s own resistance and self-healing power.