In the past, many people did not know echinacea. It was not until the 1980s that echinacea was introduced to China and planted in Beijing, Changsha, Nanjing, Shanghai and other places as a potted plant. However, you did not know that echinacea is more famous in the United States and Europe than American ginseng.
Echinacea is a truly American herb used by ordinary Americans to prevent the flu.Because there are some very old flu viruses in the northern US, from H1N1 to H5N1, H7N2, H7N9, etc., which have been circulating extensively for centuries, echinacea became as popular as islets are today when influenza was prevalent.
Echinacea is a medicinal plant first recorded in the Flora of Virginia in 1762.Echinacea has been used as a medicinal herb by several Native American peoples to regulate cough;Some Native Americans use echinacea for sore throats.Some also use echinacea leaf foam to treat toothache.In addition, echinacea has immune stimulation, tissue regeneration, anti-infection, antibacterial, antiviral and other effects, but it must be controlled, too much use will cause some side effects.
In 1999, the World Health Organization recognized echinacea for preventing colds;In 2000, the European Cooperative Group for Scientific Research in Plant Therapeutics (ESCOP) also endorsed it;Even some of the most conservative medical authorities in the West agree that echinacea really is the best plant-based medicine for fighting flu.
Echinacea, an immune-boosting herb, has become popular around the world in recent years as immunotherapy has received increasing medical attention.Echinacea is recognized as a deep immunological plant with the function of “bone marrow preservation” in the international medical circle. It has many pharmacological effects and is one of the international standard plant drugs. Echinacea is known as the “expert of total rehabilitation immunity” in Europe and America, and is also the plant antibiotic of “king of pure blood” with application prospects.
At its best, echinacea is considered to be the most ideal natural immunomodulator ever discovered. It is so safe that there is no better natural drug than echinacea.For three or five years, echinacea was no. 1 or no. 2 in plant medicine sales.
Echinacea is now introduced all over the world, and in the United States, some species are strictly protected as a resource.In China, purple flower echinacea and narrow leaf echinacea are the two main species.The overground flowers, stems, leaves and roots of Echinacea purpurea and the roots of echinacea purpurea with narrow leaves are important raw materials rich in immunoreactive substances.
Echinacea is not only used for landscaping, but also used in medicine, health care and other aspects. It contains a variety of active ingredients, mainly polysaccharides, glycoproteins, caffeic acid derivatives, alkylamides and so on.Among them, caffeic acid derivative is chicory acid, which can stimulate the activity of immune cells in human body, such as white blood cells, and has the effect of enhancing immunity. It can also be used to assist cold, cough and upper respiratory tract infection.The chemical analysis shows that there are at least 3 kinds of active components in it, which have the properties of inhibiting microorganism and bacteria.
The enhancement effect of echinacea and its extracts on immune function of the body includes the following ways:
(1) The humoral immune function of animals can be improved by increasing the level of humoral antibody and the conversion rate of immune organ B lymphocytes, so as to promote the growth and development of immune organs.
(2) Directly act on immune cells to enhance cellular immune function.Echinacea and its extracts can increase the number and activity of lymphocytes, induce the content of interleukin-2 and -interferon to increase, and significantly improve the cellular immunity level.
(3) Echinacea and its extracts can regulate toll-like receptors. In 2017, Fu et al. found that echinacea extracts polarized mouse bone marrow derived macrophages into the phenotype of classical activated macrophages by activating the JNK signaling pathway, induced macrophage activation and antigen presentation, and played its anti-infection function.
(4) The active components of echinacea polysaccharide and glycoprotein can promote the production and secretion of macrophages, -interferon, -interferon, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6, and enhance the respiratory burst activity, thus further enhancing phagocytosis and improving the immune function.