Many biological functions of yucca extract are related to its active components, the main active components include steroidal saponins, polysaccharides, resveratrol and polyphenols.
1.1 Steroidal saponins
Steroidal saponins are the most important active components of yucca extract and the most well-studied components.Saponins contain a lipophilic group called saponin, and one or more hydrophilic carbohydrate branch chains, which are natural surface activators or emulsifiers, which are conducive to the emulsification of oil and promote the digestion and absorption of glycerol ester, thus improving the utilization rate of oil.The hydrophobic part of saponins in mucosal cells is linked with the hydrophobic group of cholesterol in the way of superposition of microclusters to form a complex to affect the permeability of intestinal cells.
In a similar way, saponins also have antiinsect activity by binding to cholesterol in the protozoan cell membrane, damaging the integrity of the protozoan cell membrane and leading to cell lysis.
Polysaccharide, especially by multiple monosaccharides by glycosidic bond connected to form a functional oligosaccharide, is an important active component of yucca extract, not digested by animals their secretion of digestive enzymes, after entering the intestinal segments as chemical probiotics to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria, and can effectively inhibit pathogenic bacteria multiply, maintain the stability of the intestinal micro biota is structure, promote the intestinal health.Polysaccharide in addition, as a kind of nutrients can be lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and other intestinal probiotics decomposition and utilization, also with the intestinal ammonia molecules, as nitrogen source of gut microbes fermentation by make full use of, at the same time, effectively regulate the intestinal ph balance, higher the activity of digestive enzymes, improve the utilization rate of nutrients such as protein, vitamins and minerals.
Yucca contains two unique polyphenols, resveratrol and polyphenols, which have strong ability to bind amino groups. Therefore, it is presumed that these two polyphenols in Yucca extract may also have the ability to reduce ammonia gas.
In addition, resveratrol has a significant anti-infection effect.Nitric oxide (NO), as a signaling molecule, plays an important role in physiological functions such as immune regulation and neurotransmission, but excessive NO is cytotoxic, accompanied by inflammation.Marzocco et al. demonstrated that yucca polyphenol can inhibit the expression of nitrigenase (iNOS).NF – Κ B is a transcription factor, can regulate the expression of iNOS gene.Therefore, yucca polyphenols by inhibiting the activity of NF – B Κ play a role of strong resistance to infection
- Main physiological functions of yucca extract
2.1 Reduce ammonia emissions
Ammonia gas accounts for a large proportion in the odor gas produced by animal excrement and urine, and it and highly toxic hydrogen sulfide become the main odor index gas of the farm.The production of ammonia in feces is mainly due to the excretion of undigested nutrients (especially sulfur-containing amino acids) with feces and fermentation by microorganisms to produce a large amount of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.The production of ammonia in urine is due to the action of urease, which promotes the escape of ammonia from urea in large quantities.Ammonia is also produced when urea, which is produced by the metabolism of proteins and amino acids in the gut, breaks down under the action of urease.These intestinal ammonia can damage the mucosal epithelial tissue, affect the physiological metabolism of mucosal cells, destroy the normal intestinal flora composition, break the intestinal acid-base balance, reduce the intestinal digestive enzyme activity, and ultimately affect the digestion and absorption of feed.
According to China’s application of pharmacology records: silk LanZao glucoside have broad-spectrum antibacterial effect, its hemolytic staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, pneumonic diplococcus, dysentery bacillus, salmonella typhi, paratyphoid bacterium, vibrio cholerae, escherichia coli, proteus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, bordetella pertussis and common pathogenic fungi have stronger inhibitory skin.Wallance et al. found in the pure culture of sugar on rumen bacteria that the effect of saponins was species selective, and the effect on gram-positive bacteria was much greater than that on negative bacteria. They also pointed out that the mass concentration of yuccosides at 1-10 mg/L could inhibit the growth of Streptococcus bovis and Bacillus dysenteriae.
2.4 Improve immune function
Yucca saponins have immune-stimulating activity, can promote the generation of antibodies, stimulate the proliferation of immune cells in vitro, increase the content of CD4+ in blood, reduce the content of CD8+, and improve the titer of antibodies against Newcastle disease.At present, various scholars have put forward many views on the specific mechanism of Yucca extract promoting immune system function. Kensil et al. reported that saponins can induce the production of cytokines such as insulin and interferon, thereby mediating their immune stimulation response.It may also interact with antigen-presenting cells to induce the occurrence of immune response.Yucca saponins have been reported to enhance the immune response by increasing the uptake of antigens in the intestinal mucosa, and to bind to antigens to form complexes that prevent them from being digested and degraded.
2.5 Lowering blood glucose, cholesterol and antioxidant effects
Yucca extract can lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels, and has anti-oxidative stress effects.Fidan et al. took diabetic mice as test objects, and found that yucca powder could reduce the blood glucose content of diabetic mice, significantly reduce the cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the blood, and also reduce the damage of monocyte DNA.Cigerci etc. The results show that the composition of yucca can reduce the hemoglobin, blood and tissue of mice and malondialdehyde content in nitric oxide content in the organization, and increase the GSH content in blood and tissue, improve the antioxidant capacity of poisoning mice, fully protect the body from nitrite poisoning caused by oxidative damage and its complications.