Neotame-The Sweetest Sweetener In History
In 1965, an experimenter at Hillier Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. wiped his mouth without washing his hands while developing a gastric ulcer medicine. As a result, he discovered that aspartame, which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, is commonly known as Aspartame. Patina, due to its poor thermal stability, is often used in beverages.
Later, people moved a bit more to aspartame, making it 7000-13000 times sweeter than sucrose, commonly known as neotame, and it is currently the sweetest food additive.
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Neotame, its full name is N-[N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)]-L-α-aspartine-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, which is a relatively new non-nutritive product Sweetener, the sweetness is about 7000 to 13000 times that of sucrose, and it is white to gray powder. It is based on aspartame and 3,3-dimethylbutyraldehyde as the main raw materials. It is in the presence of hydrogen in methanol The reaction is carried out in the solution, and it is made by the steps of removing methanol, washing and drying. Its molecular formula is C20H30N2O5, molecular weight is 378.47, and the structural formula is shown in Figure 1. The solubility in water at 25°C is 12.6g/L, and the solubility in ethanol is 950g/L.
In 1993, NutraSweet was granted a patent for neotame. In July 2002, the FDA officially approved the use of neotame in food.
Neotame is made from aspartame, and its properties are similar to those of aspartame. There has always been a lot of controversy regarding the side effects of aspartame. One of the confirmed ones is that aspartame is metabolized in the body to produce phenylalanine, so it is not suitable for the intake of patients with phenylketonuria, and it needs to be Special note in the label. Because neotame is used less than aspartame, and the molecule contains 3,3-dimethylbutyl group, it can almost completely block the function of the peptidase, thereby reducing the phenylalanine Therefore, neotame does not need to be marked with a special trademark when it is added to food.
According to Newt’s research report, after being metabolized in the body, neotame will be de-esterified to form de-esterified neotame and a trace amount of methanol, which will be quickly cleared from the plasma, and finally completely excreted from the body in feces and urine. In animal experiments including rats, mice, dogs, and rabbits, neotame that is thousands of times the predicted human consumption dose has no target organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity; bacterial and mammalian experiments have not found neotame to have mutagenic effects , And no pharmacological effects on various organs and tissues have been found; tolerance tests done with healthy people have confirmed that neotame does not affect the clinical or biochemical indicators of the human body and has no side effects compared with placebo; further tests have confirmed that neotame is effective for type II There is no effect on blood glucose or insulin concentration in diabetic patients. However, in long-term animal experiments, it was found that animals had weight loss and slower weight gain. The researchers said that this phenomenon was caused by the addition of too much neotame, which reduced the palatability of the diet, which in turn led to the reduction of food consumption.
GB2760-2014 “National Food Safety Standard-Food Additives Use Standard” stipulates that neotame can be added to many foods including baked goods, beverages, and dairy products. Except for table sweeteners, candies and ready-to-eat cereals, the maximum allowable addition of neotame is less than or equal to 0.1g/kg. This is mainly due to the high sweetness of neotame and the actual need to add less.
In daily inspections, it is found that compared with other sweeteners, neotame is rarely detected in foods, indicating that it is not widely used in the food industry. The reasons may be summarized as follows:
- Neotame is a new type of product. It has been used in my country since 2003. Compared with other traditional sweeteners, it needs a certain amount of time to promote and accept;
- Neotame is a patent of the US Newt Company. The monopoly production before the end of 2013 led to higher prices of Neotame, and the cost-effective advantage was not obvious; after the expiration of the US patent, many manufacturers still have time to adjust the formula in the future;
- Neotame has the characteristic of lagging sweetness, but it can be improved by compounding with other sweeteners;
- The sweetness is too high, and the allowable limit for addition in food is low. It is inconvenient to weigh a little when used alone, and it is difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises to control the dosage.
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Application in Food
①Application in various beverages
- Carbonated drinks
Neotame can last for 16 weeks in cola-type carbonated beverages, which is consistent with the shelf life of low-energy carbonated beverages on the market. It can also be used in beverages such as lemon soda and root juice.
- Non-carbonated drinks
Neotame can be used in hot-filled lemon tea, solid powdered beverages, yogurt and other foods, and the properties in these foods are very stable and of good quality.
②Application in dairy products
Neotame can be used in dairy products, ice cream and other frozen desserts. When used in such products, after the shelf life of such products is over, the study found that only 2% of neotame is lost, which is acceptable for the product Sex has no effect, and other sweeteners rarely reach this level. Neotame is especially suitable for the production of yogurt.
④ Application in chewing gum
Since neotame has an energy value of almost 0 and does not cause tooth decay, it is suitable for the production of sugar-free chewing gum. It is not only suitable for diabetics, but also has no damage to teeth. Neotame in chewing gum can improve its stability through microencapsulation, and the two-layer coating of modified starch and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose can make it not degraded during 52 weeks of storage.
⑤ Application in table sweeteners
Because neotame has no hygroscopicity and low energy, it is very suitable as a table sweetener. Studies have shown that Neotame can be stored for at least 156 weeks when used as a table sweetener.
⑥ Application in ice cream
The ice cream made with neotame has good dissolution characteristics and structure, and its sweetness is pure and without aftertaste.
Unlike aspartame, neotame can be used together with some reducing sugars, such as glucose, fructose, lactose, etc.; it can also be used with aldehydes.
Flavor substances are used together, such as vanilla, cinnamon, lemon and so on. It is used in candy, cereals, jelly and other products. Studies have shown that Neotame has good properties in these foods.
How to Improve Solubility In Water
Although Neotame has many excellent properties, its solubility in water is not high, and its dissolution rate is relatively small, which limits the application of Neotame in food production to a certain extent.
Under normal circumstances, it takes 5 to 7 minutes for 0.05～0.19 neotame to completely dissolve in 100 mL of water (observed by naked eyes), and 5～8 min for 0.1～0.2 g of neotame to dissolve completely in 100 mL of water (by naked eyes). 1g of neotame is completely dissolved in It takes about 45 minutes in 100 mL of water.
Since neotame is often used in aqueous solutions and beverages, improving the solubility and dissolution rate of neotame in water is of great significance for expanding the application range of neotame in industry and increasing its economic value. Here are several ways to improve the solubility of neotame in water.
- Neotame compounded with hydrochloric acid
Take a certain amount of Neotame into the water, stir well until it becomes a slurry, then slowly add the equivalent amount of hydrochloric acid to it, after about 10 minutes, all the solids are dissolved, and then freeze-dry the clear solution to get it White solid, the yield was 99.7%.
Compared with the starting material Neotame, the product exhibits great water solubility. It only takes 70 seconds to completely dissolve 1g of the product in 100mL of water.
- Neotame and phosphoric acid compound
Take a certain amount of Neotame and dissolve it in water, stir to make it into a slurry, and then add an equimolar 85% phosphoric acid solution. After all the solids are dissolved, the solution is freeze-dried. The resulting product is a white solid with a yield of 98% . The water solubility of the product has been greatly improved, and 0.1 g of the product can be completely dissolved in 100 mL of water in less than 30 seconds (visual observation).
- Neotame and citric acid compound
Dissolve a certain amount of neotame in acetone, slowly add an equimolar aqueous solution of citric acid, and then add an appropriate amount of acetone to form a clear colorless solution, stir the solution for 1 hour, and then distill the acetone under reduced pressure to remove the remaining slurry. The white solid can be obtained by freeze-drying the material.
0.1g of this white solid was dissolved in 100 mL of water within 90 seconds (observed by naked eyes).
- Neotame and sodium bicarbonate compound
Dissolve a certain amount of sodium bicarbonate in water, add equimolar neotame, and stir the obtained slurry for 24 hours to obtain a clear solution, and freeze-dry to obtain a white solid that is the target product.
0.1g of white solid can be completely dissolved in 100mL of water instantly (observed by naked eyes).