Kojic acid, chemically named 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-1, 4-pyranone, is found in the brewing of soy sauce, bean paste, and wine. The presence of kojic acid can be detected in many fermented products fermented by aspergillus.
Kojic acid is a kind of weak acid compound produced by fermentation. With small molecular weight, it can be directly absorbed through the skin and has high utilization rate. It can prevent the production of tyrosinase, thus inhibiting the production of melanin and blocking the production of melanin.
Although the whitening effect of kojic acid is good, but it is not stable, if you see the light is easy to decompose failure, it is recommended to use at night;It has a certain irritation with sensitization, may weaken the skin barrier, so sensitive muscles to be careful use.
Application of kojic acid, mainly in the high-end line of Japanese cosmetics, in view of kojic acid carcinogenic wave (kojic acid used to be a controversial composition, some argue that the photosensitive reaction and carcinogenic risk, therefore, Japan once banning the use of the components, but it has been unleashed), is now applied to protect skin to taste of kojic acid are very safe, you don’t have to worry about.
The whitening mechanism of koji
The whitening mechanism of kojic acid is to directly inhibit the tyrosinase that leads to melanin melanosis and prevent melanin melanosis (polymerization).
The pattern of melanin melanosis is shown below.
In uV-irradiated skin, the tyrosine amino acids in the basal melanocytes bind to the active enzyme tyrosinase and become dopamine, which binds to the enzyme and becomes dopa quinone, part of which becomes eumelanin (melanin).
The whitening mechanism of curic acid is to supplement the copper element necessary for the work of tyrosinase, so as to hinder the activity of tyrosinase, do not let it contact with tyrosinase, so as to achieve the inhibition of the activity of tyrosinase and melanin inhibition of the main lead monomeric DHICA and DHI generation effect, achieve the whitening skin care effect.
Safety of kojic acid
At present, for the safety of kojic acid, if the concentration is controlled within 1%, there is almost no irritation to the eyes, and no irritation to the skin.
Although there may be very few transient mild skin irritation, slight skin hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis) and slight light sensitivity, it is safe to say that there is no problem, but it should be used with caution.
- Application in the field of cosmetics.
In human skin, tyrosine is catalyzed by tyrosinase and oxygen free radicals through complex oxidation, polymerization, and finally synthesis of melanin.
Kojic acid can inhibit the synthesis of tyrosinase, and thus can strongly inhibit the formation of melanin, and safe non-toxic, does not produce white spot sequela, so kojic acid has been allocated into lotion, facial mask, lotions, creams, can effective treatment of freckles, age spots, pigmentation, acne and other high-grade whitening cosmetics.
Kojic acid at the concentration of 20ug/ml can inhibit the 70-80% activity of various tyrosinase (or PPO), and the general added amount in cosmetics is 0.5 ~ 2.0%.
- Food processing.
Kojic acid can be used as food additive to keep fresh, prevent corrosion and resist oxidation.
Experiments show that kojic acid can inhibit the conversion of sodium nitrite into carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon, and the addition of kojic acid in food will not affect the taste, aroma and texture of food.
Kojic acid is also a raw material for the production of maltol and ethyl maltol. It is widely used in food processing.
- Medical field.
Because the eukaryotic cells have no mutagenic effect on kojic acid, can eliminate free radicals within human body again, to enhance the role, such as the white power, beneficial to human body health, so has kojic acid as raw materials of cephalosporins antibiotics, medicines used to treat with the finished products produced diseases such as headache, toothache, and local inflammation, analgesia and anti-inflammatory effect is very ideal.
In the field of agriculture.
Kojic acid can be used in the production of biological pesticides.With the addition of 0.5-1.0% kojic acid bio-micro fertilizer (dark red liquid), this crop production accelerator has obvious effect on grain and vegetable yield increase, no matter it is sprayed as foliar fertilizer in low concentration, or made as growth booster for root application.
- In other areas.
Kojic acid can also be used as iron analysis reagent, film stain remover, etc.