- What is NMN?
NMN stands for nicotinamide mononucleotide, a molecule that occurs naturally in all life forms.At the molecular level, this molecule is a nucleotide, a basic structural unit of nucleic acid RNA.Structurally, it consists of nicotinamide, ribose, and phosphate groups (Figure 1).NMN is the direct precursor of the required molecule.Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is considered to be the key molecule to increase the level of NAD+ in cells.
- What is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)?
NAD+ is a coenzyme necessary for life and cell function.Enzymes are the catalysts that make biochemical reactions possible.Coenzymes are the “helper” molecules that enzymes need to perform their functions.
- What does NAD+ do?
NAD+ is the most abundant molecule in the body after water, without which an organism would die.NAD+ is used in the body by many proteins, such as Sirtuins, which repair damaged DNA.It is also important for the mitochondria, the power cells that produce the chemical energy our bodies use.
- NAD+ plays a coenzyme role in mitochondria
NAD+ plays a particularly active role in metabolic processes such as glycolysis, the TCA cycle (AKA Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle) and the electron transport chain.
As a ligand, NAD+ binds to the enzyme, transferring electrons between molecules.Electrons are the atomic basis of cell energy, and by transferring electrons from one molecule to another, NAD+ works through cellular mechanisms similar to battery charging.When electrons are used up to provide energy, the battery runs out.Without the boost, these electrons can’t get back to where they started.In cells, NAD+ acts as a stimulant.In this way, NAD+ can reduce or increase enzyme activity, gene expression, and cell signaling.
- NAD+ helps control DNA damage
As organisms age, they cause DNA damage due to environmental factors such as radiation, contamination and inaccurate DNA replication.According to the current aging theory, the accumulation of DNA damage is the main cause of aging.Almost all cells contain “molecular mechanisms” to repair this damage.This machine consumes NAD plus and energy molecules.As a result, excessive DNA damage can deplete valuable cellular resources.
An important DNA repair protein, PARP(Polyadp-Ribose polymerase), relies on NAD+ for function.NAD+ levels drop in the elderly.Accumulation of DNA damage during normal aging leads to an increase in PARP and a decrease in NAD+ concentration.Any further DNA damage in the mitochondria would exacerbate this depletion.
PARP 1 is a mediator in DNA repair
PARP1 attracts DNA machinery to repair DNA
How does PARP 1 help repair the schematic of damaged DNA
NMN is used to make NAD+, PAP1 uses NAD+
- How does NAD+ affect sirtuins(longevity genes) activity?
NMN is used to make NAD+, sirtuins use NAD+
Newly discovered Sirtuins, also known as “guardians of genes”, play a crucial role in maintaining the health of cells.Sirtuins are enzymes involved in cellular stress response and damage repair.They are also involved in insulin secretion, the aging process and health conditions related to aging, such as neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes.The activation of the Sirtuins requires NAD+.